Registration and licensing department - QCHP licenses all healthcare professionals including: physicians, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, midwives and a range of allied healthcare practitioners which include but not limited to psychologists, opticians, audiologists, paramedics, podiatrists, speech therapists, physiotherapists, dieticians, dental hygienists, chiropractors, and medical technicians
QCHP’s function doesn’t include neither to find jobs for healthcare practitioners in the healthcare sector in the State of Qatar nor to specify the amount of salaries which must be provided by the employer, as it’s the applicant’s responsibility to agree these details upon discussion with his place of work.
Please check the following link in order to find the Registration and licensing overview process map.
Notes: You should regularly check the MOPH and QCHP’s websites in order to see the updates.
In order to get practicing license in the healthcare sector in the State of Qatar, you need to apply for an online application for registration / evaluation through the Electronic Registration & Licensing System and complete all the requirements using the following QCHP website www.qchp.org.qa
Kindly notice that:
- No practitioner is allowed to practice before receiving their medical license from QCHP; otherwise the licensing application will be rejected, and the institution and practitioner will face disciplinary actions.
- Please follow up with your employer or potential employer’s focal point concerning the registration / evaluation process and in case you need to check your delayed application status (if any).
The Evaluation, Licensing and License Renewal fees change depending on the profession and scope of practice as shown in the below noted table, knowing that the license validity is 2 years starting from the issuing date and that it is prohibited for any practitioner to practice without license or with an expired license:
|Profession||Request Type||Request Fees (QR)|
|Physician (specialist)|| |
|General Scope Physician|| |
|Dentist (specialist)|| |
|General Scope Dentist|| |
|Allied Health Practitioner|| |
There are 2 modes of payment for the evaluation, licensing and renewal fees as shown below:
- The online payment gateway:
The online payment through the registration & licensing electronic system knowing that payments are accepted via credit cards: Master Card or Visa Card and the focal point must review the application and submit it online immediately after completing the payment step without the need to personally come to the MOPH premises. For more details please check circular no. (14/2014) available on the MOPH website.
The focal point can attend the MOPH premises in order to pay the fees on the payment counter and after that submit the request through the registration & licensing electronic system.
For physicians, the QCHP recognizes primary medical degrees listed in the IMED FAIMER directory (International Medical Education Directory of the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research). https://imed.faimer.org
Equivalent primary degrees have different names in different countries and universities. For example, the primary degree for physicians throughout the Middle East, UK, and Commonwealth is called a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB, or MBBCh). In North America, the equivalent is called a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).
Physician applicants who do not hold a recognized qualification will be referred to an expert panel for assessment. For all other healthcare professions, QCHP assesses primary qualifications on a case-by-case basis.
Submitting a complete application is the best way to ensure the shortest possible processing time. Make sure you submit a complete online application attached with all the relevant required documents. In addition to the following:
- Apply for Data verification before applying for registration / evaluation, and attaching the Data Flow payment receipt in the application.
- Arrange to send the CoGS at the earliest from each registration authority where you have been registered for the last years of required experience (depending on your per profession) (sometimes it’s called a Certificate of Registration Status).
- Sit the qualifying exam (Prometric) (if required) and attach copy of the exam passing certificate in the registration / evaluation application.
- Regularly follow up with your employer’s focal point on your request, in order to check your application status and provide help in case of missing documents or further information is needed by the registration & licensing department.
- Keep checking the circulars and news continuously published in the MOPH and QCHP’s websites in order to find all the updates concerning the registration / licensing process.
The Healthcare Practitioners Registration and Licensing Department- QCHP has previously done workshops for focal points and employers to train them on how to use the electronic registration/licensing system and to ensure that all the required data is filled and the required documents are attached. Therefore, focal points and employers must take the responsibility for submitting a complete application.
Yes, a large part of the registration and licensing process can be done while the applicant remains in their home country. For example, the primary source verification application can be completed and submitted by using the electronic verification system, Qualifying examination (if required) can be taken in one of 10,000 test centers located in over 100 countries around the world, and the evaluation application can be completed and submitted by the employer locally while the applicant is still outside Qatar. However, some evaluation requirements (for example an assessment interview) will require the presence of the applicant in the State of Qatar. In addition, the licensing process will also require the presence of the applicant in the State of Qatar.
Each type of license has a defined scope of practice that describes what work the license-holder is authorized to do. Physicians / dentists/ nurses have both general and specialist scopes of practice.
Job descriptions that give details of duties in the workplace are set by employers, knowing that it is prohibited for any practitioner to work out of his defined scope of practice which is mentioned in his license provided by QCHP.
An experience certificate is an official letter from a previous employer stating the nature and time period of the person’s previous employment along with the job description. The letter must include the applicant’s full name, specify the applicant’s clinical role and list the exact dates of employment. The letter must be on official company letterhead, and signed by an appropriate authority within the company. Appropriate authorities may include a human resources officer, manager, departmental director or business owner. Please also ensure that the letter is dated and has the stamp of the facility.
The current laws of the State of Qatar require a minimum of years of experience in order to be eligible to work in the State of Qatar. However, Healthcare practitioners can obtain training to complete the required years of experience. To find all about the training terms and liabilities, please visit the following link on the QCHP website http://www.qchp.org.qa/en/Pages/HowToRegisterToPracticeInQatar.aspx
In case you have lack of required experience or break from practice for more than 2 years and you would like to apply for registration /licensing in Qatar, please check the training requirements section specific for your profession through the following link of the QCHP website.
This subject is currently under discussion.
The Preliminary Assessment is valid for 6 months after the issuing date and if it’s expired and you would like to proceed with your licensing process, in this case you need to reapply for evaluation request and attach all the requirements along with the previous evaluation documents.
Note: The Preliminary Assessment is not considered as license to practice.
Yes. In case your evaluation application was rejected, you can apply for a re-evaluation request of your academic and work experience qualifications to the healthcare practitioners registration and licensing department- QCHP within 1 months from the rejected preliminary assessment date.
All licensing authorities have a process to assess that an applicant’s background, training, qualifications and experience are suitable for them to practice safely in that country. Licensing authorities have a different name in each country.
Please contact your facility’s focal point to check the facility license status with the facility licensing department in MOPH. (if the facility didn’t apply for registration then it won't appear on the system)
Note: Concerning the facility Licensing status or process please contact the Facility Licensing section in Ministry of Public Health.
Nursing work experience is accepted as one of the requirements for registration/ licensing of dental assistant provided that this category must works in dental clinics only and that the applicant will sit for the qualifying exam as Dental Assistant. For more details please check the Allied Health Profession Policies/guidelines on the QCHP website using the following link http://www.qchp.org.qa/en/Pages/PoliciesandProcedures.aspx
It is currently under discussion.
No, as there is specific procedures for the police clearance requested by the registration department in order to proceed with the registration / licensing process, knowing that you may use the same Certificate of Good Standing from your home country for both procedures.
Blood tests are a requirement under current Qatari law to protect both patients and healthcare practitioners from the transmission of infectious diseases. Blood tests are evidence that the healthcare practitioner does not have any communicable disease or illness that may infect patients in the course of clinical duties.
Yes. However, only pharmacists & pharmacy technicians are exempted.
Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP will assess the consequences of blood test results on a case-by-case basis, taking into account expert medical advice.
If you need to convert your license from Visiting doctor to resident doctor, you will need to apply online for “update personal information” request through the registration & licensing electronic system and attach the following documents:
- Valid Qatari ID
- A certificate of good standing from your current registration authority.
- Police clearance from Qatari Ministry of Interior.
- Recent experience certificate which must be verified through the primary source verification company.
- Copy of Valid Recognized CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation) course or its equivalent. Please check the Circular number (9/2014) on the QCHP website through the following link http://www.qchp.org.qa/en/QCHPCirculars/Circular%20(09-2014)%20-%20Eng.pdf
- Copy blood test including the following: HIV test, HCV test, HBV test, HB vaccination and chest X-Ray.
- Any other relevant requirements set by the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP.
Primary source verification (PSV) is the process of checking the educational background, training, experience as well as other credentials of all healthcare practitioners applying for registration and licensing in both the private and public healthcare sectors in the State of Qatar.
This assures the regulators that all healthcare practitioners' credentials are verified as genuine thus, ensuring safe and effective professional practice in the State of Qatar.
Primary source verification (PSV) means that those applicants who present false or misleading credentials are discovered early and prevented from practicing. It also allows QCHP to warn other registration authorities of fraudulent applicants.
The ultimate goal of QCHP is to protect the health, safety, welfare of the public and will not risk the safety of the public by allowing a person to practice before the results of the verification process are known, in addition to, ensuring validity and safety of the services provided to citizens and residents of the State of Qatar.
It is essential for all Healthcare Practitioners to apply for the primary source verification process before applying for registration/ evaluation to the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP and attach the dataflow payment receipt to the electronic registration/evaluation application.
No. Primary source Verification is a one-time process that will be conducted prior to a license being issued for the first time. However, the Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP reserves the right to require re-verification at any time if it has reason to believe a currently registered practitioner has submitted false or misleading credentials.
The primary source verification process takes minimum of 30 working days (6 calendar weeks). Delays are caused as a result of difficulty in contacting information sources (such as previous employers) and where suspicions have been raised requiring more detailed investigations.
Healthcare practitioners who studied in the state of Qatar or sponsored by the State of Qatar are exempted from the primary source verification process.
No, you do not need to have certificates attested if they have been verified by the Primary Source verification company. However, some information that is not verified by the Primary Source verification company (for example, surgical logbooks submitted with an application for surgical privileges) will need to be attested by the appropriate authorities.
Note: It’s entirely the employer’s & the applicant’s responsibility to follow up with the verification company.
Retrospective Primary Source Verification is applicable to all public and private healthcare practitioners, who were licensed before the implementation of verification process in 2009 by the accredited company (DataFlow), these practitioners are requested to submit their Academic qualifications for verification and attach the proof of submission with the renewal application.
Primary Source Verification Fees
|Profession/ Category|| Documents/Components ||Fees (QAR)|
|New Primary Source Verification Applications|||||
Physicians & Dentists
· Verification of up to Two educational qualifications
· ONE professional license
· Last FIVE years of experience
· Medical Risk and Datasets check
Allied Healthcare Professions / Pharmacists / Nurses / Complementary Medicine
· Verification of ONE educational qualification
· ONE professional license
· Last THREE years of experience
· Medical Risk and Datasets check
|Retrospective Primary Source Verification Applications|||||
|Physicians & Dentists licensed before 2009 and still practicing in the State of Qatar|
· Verification of up to Two educational qualification
· ONE Professional License
· Medical Risk and Datasets check
|Allied Healthcare Professionals licensed before 2009 and still practicing in the State of Qatar|
· Verification of One educational qualification
· ONE Professional License
· Medical Risk and Datasets check
|Verification Fees of any Additional Documents|||||
|· One Additional Education Qualification|
|||· One Good Standing Certificate||QAR 300|
|||· One Surgical Privilege Log Book||QAR 300|
|||· One Additional Professional License||QAR 180 |
|||· Additional work experience certificates, Also Applicable if applicant has more than TWO work experience certificates than Packages (A,B)|
| Verification Reports Transfer ||Report transfer fee from other authorities to QCHP||QAR 200|
- Prices above apply starting from 17/11/2016.
- Prices above apply only in the case of receipt of documents online.
- The above prices and packages (Package A, B, C, D) are only applicable if documents are submitted for verification at the same time. Extra fees will be charged for any additional documents submitted post receiving the initial package of documents
- An additional 50 QAR admin fees will be added to the above-mentioned prices incase payment is done at dataflow counters (no.9, 14) in the MOPH premises.
- Retrospective Primary Source Verification Applications is applicable to practitioners who were licensed before the implementation of the verification process in 2009, for further details, please refer to circular no. 19/2014 available on QCHP website http://www.qchp.org.qa
* Price above applies only in the case of receipt of documents online
* Receiving the applications inside MOPH premises an additional 35 QAR admin fees will be added to above-mentioned price
A CoGS is the document used by one registration authority to indicate to another that healthcare practitioners are legally registered and permitted to practice without restriction. The intention of the CGS is to show that there is no legal impediment to registration and that a healthcare practitioner can reasonably be regarded as safe to practice, within the context of the licensing laws in the country of the issuing authority.
CoGS are not usually difficult to get. Most registration authorities have well established processes to apply for CoGS.
Only original CoGSs received directly by the Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP from the registration authority abroad are accepted (or an electronic copy), which has to cover the required years of experience as per each profession & must be sent directly to the following address:
Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP
Ministry of Public Health
State of Qatar
Primary Source Verification and CoGSs are required for two separate and distinct purposes.
Primary Source Verification is required to validate an applicant’s background, training, qualifications and experience. In other words, to ensure that all the information provided by the applicant is genuine.
A CoGS is sent by other registration authorities to inform the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP that an applicant is legally registered and permitted to practice without restriction. It is an assurance that the applicant can reasonably be regarded as safe to practice, within the context of the licensing laws in the country of the issuing authority.
No. CoGS shall be sent directly from the recognised registration authorities.
Yes. The most up-to-date and reliable evidence of your entitlement to practice and your current good standing in your last place of practice is a CoGS sent directly to the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP from the registration authority.
You need to apply an online application for Certificate of Good Standing through the electronic registration and licensing system on the website of Qatar Council for Healthcare Practitioners (www.qchp.org.qa)
Submit an electronic Certificate of Good Standing request and upload the below mentioned documents:
- Copy of valid passport + copy of valid QID (if any).
- Copy of current or last Medical license in the State of Qatar.
- Experience Certificate from Human Resource Dept. of your employer in State of Qatar.
- Copy of all academic certificates.
- Certificate of good standing from place of work (in Qatar).
- Clear address for the required Registration Authority.
- For those healthcare practitioners who worked in Qatar without getting license, will not be able to apply online for COGS through the Registration & Licensing Electronic System.
- Applications that do not meet the requirements mentioned above will be rejected.
- Original documents /certificates if required shall be submitted upon request.
- Any other required documents required to support the application that are not mentioned above shall be submitted upon request.
- Please be informed that the original certificate of good standing will be sent directly to the department of request.
- Any documents presented in languages other than Arabic or English must be translated and attached to a copy of the original documents.
- Please refer to the Supreme Council of Health website frequently to check the updates of the certificate of good standing requirements.
- If the license is expired or the practitioner is out of the country or out of practice or doesn’t have an account on the registration & licensing electronic system in this case the applicant needs to contact our System Help Desk Officer on the following contact details: email@example.comTelephone number: 44070279 in order to enable the applicant to apply online for CoGS.
- For any technical issue in using the Registration & Licensing Electronic System please contact our System Help Desk Officer on the following contact details: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone number: 44070279.
Currently there is no fees for Certificate of Good Standing issued by QCHP upon the healthcare practitioner's request.
- The qualifying exam is considered to be one of the requirements for registration/ licensing of healthcare practitioners to ensure the efficiency and the eligibility of applicants to work safely in the State of Qatar.
- The scopes not required to sit for the qualifying examination will be reviewed and evaluated as per the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP approved qualification or through panel committee assessment.
- Should you have any inquiry, please contact Prometric candidates care service at the following contact details:
Prometric Contact Details
Phone Number: From Sunday to Thursday: +31 320 239 530 (with Arabic language option)
From Friday to Monday: +31 320 239 800
E-mail : Pnlemail@example.com
The company organizing the qualifying exams (Prometric)
All categories listed below must pass the electronic qualifying examination in order to get a license to practice after fulfilling all other requirements of registration and licensing.
The Qatar Council for Healthcare Practitioners provides computer based examination (Prometric) for 15 categories / Specialties of healthcare practitioners all week working days as follow:
|No.||Exam Title||No. of items/ Exam Duration||Cut score||Practitioners required to take the Qualifying Exam|
2 ½ hours
2 ½ hours
2 ½ hours
|4.||Registered General Nurse|
2 ½ hours
|50%||Registered General Nurse|
2 ½ hours
|6.||Lab Technologist (New)|
2 ½ hours
Lab Technologist (specific)
2 ½ hours
|8.||Radiology Technologist (New)|
2 ½ hours
2 ½ hours
2 ½ hours
Critical Care Paramedic
2 ½ hours
|15.||Dental Lab Technician|
More Examinations can be added as needed.
Please check the qualifying exam page in order
to find the References of the Electronic Qualifying Exams for each profession. Click
Please check the qualifying exam page in order to find the number of questions for each of the exams. Click here
All exams questions are in multiple choice formats, so you simply select the correct answer from the available choices.
Yes, when your exam ends, you will receive a Score Report. This will indicate your score and whether you have passed the examination successfully
This varies according to which exam you are taking. Further information can be obtained through visiting the qualifying examination page at the following link Click Here
No, currently there are no exemptions from the qualifying exam.
A complete list of exams offered by Prometric is available on the MOPH website. If the exam you wish to take is not mentioned, please contact the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP for further information at the following link.
The quickest and easiest way to make your registration is on-line as this will give you up to the minute details of seat availability. You can also schedule by telephone by calling the Thomson Prometric Regional Contact Centre. When registering for a test, you must enter the number and issuing country of either your current Passport or Government Issued ID Card. The Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP will not accept candidates who have not completed this information and failure to do so may lead to the withholding of your result. This ID must also be taken to a testing centre for verification at check-in.
To locate your nearest test centre, check on www.prometric.com. After requesting SCHQ,
Click on “Locate a Testing Centre” and this will provide you with all the necessary information.
Our aim is to provide you with a suitable appointment date for testing within the next 2 weeks.
In the unlikely event that you are unable to find a seat, please contact our Customer Service
Team at the Prometric Regional Contact Centre or you can reach us by email (in English only).
There is one testing centre currently available in Doha for men and women. Up to date, seat availability can be checked on the exam website 24 hours a day. www.prometric.com
When your registration has been successfully made, either through the Internet or over the phone, you will receive an email confirmation with all the detailed information that you need.
If booking through the Internet or by telephone, payment for your exam can be made with all major credit cards: MasterCard, Visa, and American Express. Unfortunately, payment cannot be made in cash. If you send your registration through the post, you must send it with the relevant forms and a cheque made payable to Prometric Inc for the correct amount in US$.
In the highly unlikely situation that you are unable to take the test, you will be issued with an incident number at the testing centre. You will then be able to rebook your appointment, free of charge, with the Customer Service Team at the Prometric Regional Contact Centre or by email (in English only) and they will be able to assist you. Please ensure that you always quote the incident number given to you by the test centre staff
The exam that you will take has been verified many times. However, if you believe that there may be an error, or if you have to complain for any reason during your test, you should notify the testing centre Administrator who will file a report. This will be passed onto the necessary department for further investigation and you will be contacted for further information, if required.
If there is an issue with your result please contact the Customer Service Team at the
Prometric Regional Contact Centre by email including your confirmation number, date and place of testing; they will then act upon it as necessary.
In order to practice in the State of Qatar you will need to sit for the Qualifying Exam (Prometric) which is specific for Qatar (it can be sat in another country).
For further information, please can contact the Prometric Candidates Care Service on the following contact details:
- Sunday to Thursday Phone Number: +31 320 239 530 (with Arabic language option)
- Friday to Monday Phone Number: +31 320 239 800
- Email: Pnlfirstname.lastname@example.org
- Website: www.prometric.com
You can take the exam as long as there is seat available to take the test. For more information please contact the Prometric candidate care service directly.
Yes you can apply for primary source verification (dataflow) before taking the qualifying exam. It is essential for all Healthcare Practitioners to apply for the primary source verification process before applying for registration/ evaluation to the healthcare practitioners registration and licensing department- QCHP and attach the dataflow payment receipt to the electronic
Usually Prometric issues the exam passing certificate only once (after successfully completing the exam), however if the applicant lost the certificate in this case he /she can inform the registration department concerning this issue and provide them with the exam reference (appointment ID) number in order to enable them to check the exam result in the exams system.
By taking this exam, the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP is able to assess your ability in your chosen profession. If you reach the required standard, you may be eligible to apply for a license to practice in the State of Qatar.
No, the purpose of the exam is for you to demonstrate that you have reached the standard as required by the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP.
Should you need to reschedule your exam, you can either call the Customer Service Team at the Thomson Prometric Regional Contact Centre or you can visit www.prometric.com at least 3 full calendar days before your appointment.
Should you need to cancel your exam, you can either call the Thomson Prometric Regional
Contact Centre or visit www.prometric.com at least 3 days before your appointment. If you paid Prometric directly with a credit card, please request a refund and this will be arranged for you. If your registration was made for you, you need to contact that party and arrange a refund directly with them.
Submit an application for a medical radiation license. The application form and requirements can be downloaded from the website at the following link.
(Medical Radiation License Application)
The place of work must send an official letter to the Registration & Licensing Department -QCHP besides the radiation application form & requirements, asking for such privileges; accordingly, the Healthcare Practitioners Registration & Licensing Department-QCHP will arrange for an intensive relevant course through the perspective committee.
There are 4 radiation fields which are:
- Nuclear medicine
- Radiation protection unit.
To work in one of the last 3 fields, an official letter must be submitted beside the radiation application form & requirements.
You need to apply for surgical privileges for any procedures you will perform in your practice.
You must apply by using the surgical privileges application form & requirements that are available on the following link Guideline & Useful Links and request for surgical privileges
Yes. A license indicates that the healthcare practitioner is judged to be competent and up-to-date and/ or that a facility is safe. For you and your family protection, you should only get healthcare services and advice from licensed healthcare practitioners and facilities.
If you would like to know if a private healthcare practitioner or a facility is licensed, visit the QCHP www.qchp.org.qa or the MOPH website www.moph.gov.qa . Or you have the right to ask the provider about his license and / or specialty.
There are 6 laws in the State of Qatar for the regulations of healthcare practitioners and healthcare service facilities:
- Law "11" of the year 1982, Regulation of healthcare facilities
- Law "2" of the year 1983, Regulation of medical and dental practice and the amendments thereto.
- Law "3" of the year 1983, Regulation of pharmaceutical professions and agents of pharmaceutical manufacturing and distribution companies and the amendments thereto.
- Law "1" of the year 1986, Registration of pharmaceutical companies and their products.
- Law "8" of the year 1991, Regulation of the practices of allied health professionals.
- Law "31" of the year 2002, Concerning protection from radiation.
In addition to the following:
- The cabinet minister's resolution No. "9" of the year 1998 in relation to the permanent licensing committee at the ministry of health and defines its functions and the amended resolutions thereto.
- The Emiri decree No. "7" of the year 2013 regarding the establishment of the Qatar Council for Healthcare Practitioners (QCHP) as an independent Council rather than being a department within the Secretariat of the Supreme Council of Health; and the Sole authority responsible for the regulating of all healthcare practitioners working in both governmental and private healthcare sectors in the state of Qatar. Click Here
Refer to the following websites for more details about the above mentioned laws www.moph.gov.qa , www.qchp.org.qa
Before you travel you must inform the Registration & Licensing Department- QCHP of your date of departure, your date of return and if you intend to practice while you are abroad.
As per the current rules and regulations, a physician cannot work without a nurse in attendance.
Yes, QCHP has a special medical team to check and ensure that all the healthcare practitioners & healthcare facilities are working in accordance to the laws and regulations of the State of Qatar. This team caries out regular on site inspection and considers complaints received in this matter through close cooperation with legal authorities in the case of non-compliance with the law.
As per the laws and regulations of QCHP, the date mentioned in the documents should be written in details (day, month and year)
You should be precise in selecting the scope of practice; however, this situation is dealt with case-by-case.
No, it should be through an employer in the State of Qatar.
Please check the following link , choose your profession and check the section of “Change Place of Work” in order to find how to apply for this request.
Guidlines & Useful Links
The license validity provided by QCHP has been renewed from 1 year to 2 years starting from the license issuing date (for new license) and starting from the license expiry date (in case of license renewal).
Kindly check the following link in order to find the timings of the open days and the Registration Department/ Qatar Council for Healthcare Practitioners Contact Details.
All the application forms & requirements are available on MOPH and QCHP’s websites.
Visit the websites regularly for updates concerning requirements & policies.